Quarks are fundamental particles that join together in different combinations to make more familiar particles like protons and neutrons. Omega-sub-b is about six times heavier than the mass of a proton. It was discovered by Fermilab’s DZero experiment, using the tevatron particle collider.
Quarks are gregarious, they’re always found in combination with other quarks and never alone. As you can imagine, this makes obtaining measurements of individual quarks particularly challenging.
Omega-sub B is especially exciting because it contains a bottom quark, providing scientists with key information into how quarks form matter, a process not yet completely understood. Scientists have now observed 13 of the 20 different quark combinations predicted in 1961 by Murray Gell-Mann, Yuval Ne’eman and George Zweig.