What is Sprinkler System? Types and Examples

Sprinkler System

A sprinkler system is an active fire protection system, consisting of a water supply system, providing a water distribution piping system, on which fire sprinklers have sufficient pressure and flow rates.

Sprinkler System
Sprinkler System

Although historically only used in systems for factories and large commercial buildings, homes and small buildings are now available at a cost-effective price. Fire extinguishers are used extensively around the world, with 40,000,000 spraying heads fit every year. In fully protected buildings constructed by fire extinguisher, more than 96% of the fire was controlled by fire sprinklers alone.

Sprinkler System’s history

The Sprinkler System came into being around around the 15th century. Whose century wise description is given below:

15th century sprinkler system

Leonardo da Vinci created a spraying system in the 15th century. Leonardo automated his patron kitchen with a system of a super oven and carrier belt. In a comedy of errors, everything went wrong during a huge banquet, and a fire broke out. “The sprinkler also all worked well, due to a flood that washed away all the food and a nice part of the kitchen.

16th and 17th century sprinkler system

Ambrose Godfrey created the first successful automatic spraying system in 1723. He used gunpowder to relieve the extinguishing tank of fluid.

18th century sprinkler system

The world’s first modern recognizable sprinkler system was established by its architect, William Congreve in 1812, the Theater Royal, Drury Lane in the United Kingdom, and the patent number 3606 was covered by the same year. This device included a cylindrical airait reservoir of 400 hogsheads (C 9 5,000 liters) fed by 10 inch (250 mm) of water main which branched in all parts of the stage. Series of small pipes from the distribution pipe are pierced by a series of holes of 1/2 inch (13mm) which add water to the fire conditions.

19th century sprinkler system

History states as Merit Spraying Company:

From 1852 to 1885, the punched pipe system was used as a means of fire protection in textile mills in New England. However, he was not an automated system, he did not turn himself off Inventors first started experimenting with automatic sprinklers around 1860. The first automatic spraying system was patented in 1872, by Philip W. Pratt of Abington, MA. Henry S. Parmalee is considered the inventor of New Haven, Connecticut first practical spraying head. Parmalee Pratt improved on patent and created a better spraying system. In 1874, he established his fire extinguisher in the piano factory that he owned.

Frederick Grinnell Better patented the Parmalee design and automatic sprinkling in 1881 that bears his name. He continued to improve the device and invented the glass disc spraying in 1890, originally as it is in use today.

20th century sprinkler system

By 1940, Springliner commercial buildings, which were generally able to protect their costs with saving in insurance costs, were almost exclusively established for protection. For years, fire extinguishers have become essential safety tools

In some parts of North America, including in some Okkunpansi, but not limited to new “hospitals, schools, hotels and other public buildings”, local construction codes and enforcement. However, outside the US and Canada, Sprinkler is rarely compulsory by creating code for Samantha Danger Oakpanchi, which is not a large number of occupants (such as factories, process lines, retail outlets, petrol stations, etc.)

Now spraying is done in other buildings, including schools and residential complexes. This is largely the result of lobbying by the National Fire Sprinkler Network, the European Fire Sprinkler Network and the British Automated Fire Sprinkler Association.

21th century sprinkler system

In Scotland and England, fire extinguishers for construction rules to establish certain types of properties to ensure the safety of the occupants.

In Scotland, all new schools are protected spraying, as new care homes, sheltered housing and high rise flats. All higher buildings in England should have spring protection for more than 30 meters. 2011 Wales has become the first country in the world to make fire sprinkler system in the new homes mandatory. The law applies to blocks of newly built homes and flats, as well as care homes and residential halls of residence. This law was applicable on September 2013.

Working Process of Sprinkler System

Each closed head spraying is conducted either by a heat-sensitive glass bulb or a two part metal arranged with a composite alloy. The glass bulb or the link is applied to the pressure for a pipe cap which acts as a plug which prevents water from flowing up to ambient temperature around the perfusion, the individual sprinkler system head reaches the activation temperature. In a standard wet pipe sprinkler machine, each spraying is activated independently when the preset heat level is reached. In this way, only one or two of them will only work on fire, those who are near the fire. This fire maximizes water pressure at the point of origin, and decreases water damage to the building.

A sprinkling activation is a fire department tube stream, which will reduce water loss by providing approximately 9 00 liters of 250 / a typical 75-150 liters used for industrial manufacturing, octane, spraying 20-40 / 50, however, 50 Under the pressure of PSI (340 kpa), a typical Early Suppression Fast Response (ESFR) sprinkler will discharge approximately 380 liters per minute (100 US gall / minute). Apart from this, a spraying will usually be active within one to four minutes of the onset of fire, while it usually takes an interval of five minutes to register an alarm and fire drive for a fire department, and For installation of equipment for an additional ten minutes and apply hose currents in the fire. This extra time can result in a huge fire, it requires too much water to extinguish.

Types of Sprinkler System

Wet pipe Sprinkler System

From a wide margin, wet pipe sprinkler systems are installed more than all the other types of fire extinguishers. They are also the most reliable, because they are simple, only being operating automatic sprinkler and with automatic valve components (usually not always but), check valve components. An automatic water supply system provides water under pressure of piping.

Wet pipe antifreeze Sprinkler System

Wet sprinkler system can be charged with an antifreeze chemical, where the pipe can not be reliably placed above 40 degrees Fahrenheit for use.

While such sprinkler systems were once common in cold areas, after the fire due to high percentage of floating sprinkler systems of many free frozen, the regulatory authority in the United States effectively banned new antifreeze installations. A sunset date of 2022 applies to the old antifreeze system in the United States. With this regulatory action, the cost and decreased options for spraying system have increased substantially in the cold weather.

Dry pipe Sprinkler System

Dry pipe systems are the second most common spraying system type. Dry pipe systems are installed in the vacancy in which the ambient temperature can be quite freezing to freeze the water in a wet pipe system, providing ineffective system. Dry pipe systems are most often used in parking garages, in hot buildings, in canopies attached to warm buildings outside (in which a wet pipe system will be provided), or refrigerated coolers. Wet pipe systems can not be installed in areas using NFPA regulations, as long as the range of ambient temperature remains above 40 ° F (4 ° C).

System is not present in piping unless the system operates; Instead, piping is filled with air in a pressure below the pressure of water supply. To prevent pressure from the supply of large water for water in piping prematurely, the design of the dry pipe valve (a special type of test valve) results in the effect of piping air using a larger valve, at the top of the valve clapper But there is a big power exposed to t he area clapper, as compared to high water pressure but small clapper surface area.

Due to the valuable collection of some property owners and building owners and for the protection of non-water-sensitive areas, dry pipe sprinklers can be seen as beneficial. This alleged benefit is due to a fear that the wet system can cause leakage of water without attracting attention, whereas dry pipe system can not fail this way.

The disadvantages of using dry pipe fire sprinkler system include:

  • If Sprinkler System is a standing pipe system that is part of the same standpipe system as the supply of fire hoses, then the supply of water to fire hoses will be severely reduced or even completely cut.
  • Increased complexity: The dry pipes system requires additional control equipment and air pressure supply components which increases Sprinkler System complexity. 
  • It puts a premium on proper maintenance, compared to a wet pipe system in the form of this increase in sprinkler system complexity result (i.e., more single failure points) in a natural less reliable overall sprinkler system.
  • High installation and maintenance costs: Due to added complexity impacts overall dry pipe installation costs, and increase in maintenance costs mainly due to added service labor cost.
  • Lower design flexibility: Regulatory requirements The maximum allowable size range (i.e. 750 gallons) of individual dry pipes system, unless additional components and design efforts are provided for the discharge of timeframe water by the spraying activation, under one minute. 
  • These limitations can increase the number of individual spraying areas (serviced by a single riser i.e.) that should be provided in the building, and in addition to the sprinkler system to affect the ability of an owner.
  • Increased response time: Because the piping time is empty on spraying, there is a spring roller which is operated, while there is an inherent time delay in giving water to travel for spraying with water riser, partly in the filling process. 
  • Piping A maximum allowance of 60 seconds is allowed by regulatory requirements from time one spraying opens until the water is discharged on fire. This delay in fire suppression result in a large fire before the control, increase in property damage.
  • Dry pipe spraying due to oxidation supply of main system with corrosion debris
  • Rising corrosion capacity: After operation or testing, the piping dry piping equipment is dry, but residual water piping is collected in low places, and moisture is also maintained in the environment within piping. 
  • This moisture, coupled with oxygen available in compressed air in piping, increases internal pipe corrosion, leading to pin hole leaks or ultimately leading to piping failures. Internal corrosion rate is very low in wet pipe systems (where piping is continuously filled with water), as the amount of oxygen available for corrosion process is low. 
  • Corrosion can be corrosion using copper or stainless steel pipes, or by using dry nitrogen gas, pressure on the sprinkler system instead of air.
  • Nitrogen generators can be used as a permanent source of nitrogen gas, which is beneficial because dry pipe spraying system requires uninterrupted supply of supervisory gas. 
  • These additional precautions can increase the up-front cost of the sprinkler system, but will help prevent system failure, maintenance costs have increased, and in the future, the system needs to be replaced prior to the replacement.

Deluge Sprinkler System

“Deluge” is a system system in which all sprinklers are open to the water piping system, in that the heat sensing operating element is removed, or specially designed in such a way. These methods are used for specific hazards, where the spread of rapid fire is a matter of concern, because they use water simultaneously on the entire danger. They are sometimes setting up a tour of the fire (such as opening a fire-rated wall) in the Personnel Exhaust Path or for the inauguration of the building.

Water is not present in piping until the system is operated. Because spraying rings are open, piping is under atmospheric pressure. In order to prevent water supply pressure by forcing water into piping, a “flood valve” is used in the supply connection of water, which is a mechanically latched valve. It has a non-resetting valve, and remains open once slipped.

The starting device of a fire alarm, or the operation-activation of a manual bridge station, the fire alarm panel, which in turn allow the signals to open the flood valve, enter the water piping system. Water flows simultaneously from all the sprinklers.

Pre-action Sprinkler System

Pre-action sprinkler systems are specialized for use in locations where accidental activation is especially undesirable, such as in museums with rare art works, manuscripts, or books; and data centers, for protection of computer equipment from accidental water discharge.

Foam water sprinkler systems

A foam water fire sprinkler system is a special application system, discharging a mixture of water and low expansion foam concentrate, resulting in a foam spray from the sprinkler. These systems are usually used with special hazards occupancies associated with high challenge fires, such as flammable liquids, and airport hangars. Operation is as described above, depending on the system type into which the foam is injected.

Design of Sprinkler System

Sprinkler systems are intended to either control the fire or to suppress the fire. Control mode sprinklers are intended to control the heat release rate of the fire to prevent building structure collapse, and pre-wet the surrounding combustibles to prevent fire spread. The fire is not extinguished until the burning combustibles are exhausted or manual extinguishment is effected by firefighters. Suppression mode sprinklers (formerly known as Early Suppression Fast Response (ESFR) sprinklers) are intended to result in a severe sudden reduction of the heat release rate of the fire, followed quickly by complete extinguishment, prior to manual intervention.

Most sprinkler systems installed today are designed using an area and density approach. First the building use and building contents are analyzed to determine the level of fire hazard.

Sprinkler systems in residential structures become more practical as the cost of such sprinkler systems becomes high and the profit becomes more obvious. The residential sprinkler system is usually a residential classification different from the above mentioned commercial classification. A commercial spraying sprinkler system is designed to protect the structure and occupants with a fire. Most residential sprinkler systems are mainly designed to suppress a fire to allow the occupants of such a building to escape safely. Although these sprinkler systems will often also protect the structure from major fire damage, it is a secondary idea. A fire in these areas usually does not affect the escape route of the resident, because residential structures are often left from spraying, closets, bathrooms, balconies, garages and attics.

Cost of Sprinkler System

In 2008, the installed cost of the sprinkler system ranges from US $ 031- $ 3.66 per square foot, depending on type and location. The residential system is established at the time of initial house construction and the use of municipal water supply, about 0.35 dollars / sq. Feet of average.

During the construction or retropit sprinkler system can be installed. Some communities require a residential sprinkler system, which is the law, especially where large municipal hydrant water supplies (“Flow flows in the United States nationwide, one and two family houses generally do not require a fire extinguisher , Although the heavy loss of life due to fire occurs in these spaces.

The residential sprinkler system is affordable (of About the same lane as a square foot or floor tiling), but the supply of large water is generally installed in the houses with piping requirement, then retrofitting is generally cost prohibitive.

The NFPA states that it “has no record of a fire killing more than two people in a completely sprinklered building where a sprinkler system was properly operating, except in an explosion or flash fire or where industrial fire brigade members or employees were killed during fire suppression operations.

The world’s largest fire sprinkler system maker is Fire Protection Product Division of Tyco International.

Tyco International: Tyco International Plc was a security company incorporated in the Republic of Ireland, with operational headquarters in Princeton, New Jersey, United States (Tyco International (US)). Tyco International was composed of two major business segments: Security Solutions and Fire Protection.

Buying A Sprinkler System

A sprinkler system that is not buried has to be blown out with compressed air at the beginning of each winter to prevent the pipes from freezing and bursting.

10 Best Smart Sprinkler Systems in 2019

  1. Rachio 3
  2. Netro Remote
  3. Aeon Matrix Yardian
  4. RainMachine Touch HD-12
  5. Sprinkl SR-400
  6. Orbit B-hyve 57950
  7. Rain Bird ST8I-2.0
  8. NxEco Water Sense
  9. Orbit B-hyve 57915
  10. Hunter Hydrawise HC-600i

In case you do not install any sprinkler system on your property, and you are researching these controllers as part of an initial purchase, I want to take a moment to show you how this stuff gets laid out , You can choose the better controller that is right for you.

Ideally, these sprinkler systems are designed to connect and control the flow of different areas of water (or area) which is comprised of a number of water distribution equipment (spraying heads, drip lines, bubblers, etc.).

Thats It!

You may also read these articles